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Nurse sharks are cosmopolitan carpet sharks belonging to the family Ginglymostomatidae. Common in shallow, tropical and subtropical waters of the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific, the family comprises three genera each with one species. They are benthic sharks, characterised as being sluggish and docile. Nurse sharks typically attack humans only if directly threatened.


 


Nurse Shark: GNU head 	Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".Weights and Measures: The largest species, called simply the nurse shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum), may reach a length of 4.3 metres; the tawny nurse shark (Nebrius ferrugineus) is somewhat smaller at 3.2 metres, and the short-tailed nurse shark (Pseudoginglymostoma brevicaudatum) is by far the smallest at just 75 centimetres in length. The first of the three species may reach a weight of 110 kilograms.

Muscular Pecs: Yellowish to dark brown in colour, nurse sharks have muscular pectoral fins, two spineless dorsal fins (the second of which is smaller) in line with the pelvic and anal fins, and a tail exceeding one quarter the shark's body length.


Fleshy Barbels: The mouths of nurse sharks are most distinctive; it is far ahead of the eyes and before the snout (sub-terminal), an indication of the bottom-dwelling (benthic) nature of these sharks. Also present on the lower jaw are two fleshy barbels, chemosensory organs which help the nurse sharks to find prey hidden in the sediments. Behind each eye is a very small circular opening called a spiracle, part of the shark's respiratory system. The serrated teeth are fan-shaped and independent; like other sharks, the teeth are continually replaced throughout the animal's life.

Nurse Shark: GNU head 	Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".Night Nurse: Nurse sharks are nocturnal animals, spending the day in large inactive groups of up to 40 individuals. Hidden under submerged ledges or
in crevices within the reef, the nurse sharks seem to prefer specific haunts and will return to them every day.

By night, the sharks are largely solitary; they spend most of their time rifling through the bottom sediments in search of food. Their diet consists primarily of crustaceans, molluscs, tunicates, and other fish, particularly stingrays.

On the Menu: Nurse sharks are thought to take advantage of dormant fish which would otherwise be too fast for the sharks to catch; although their small mouths limit the size of prey items, the sharks have large throat cavities which are used as a sort of bellows valve. In this way nurse sharks are able to suck in their prey like a vacuum. Nurse sharks are also known to graze algae and coral.


Birds and Bees: The mating season runs from late June to the end of July. Nurse sharks are ovoviviparous, meaning the eggs develop and hatch within the body of the female, where the hatchlings develop further until live birth occurs. The gestation period is six months, with a typical brood of 30-40 pups. The mating cycle is biennial, as it takes 18 months for the female's ovaries to produce another batch of eggs. The young nurse sharks are born fully developed at about 30 centimetres long in Ginglymostoma cirratum. They possess a spotted coloration which fades with age.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU Free Documentation License".

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License

   
 


 Kingdom: Animalia

 Phylum: Chordata

 Class: Chondrichthyes

 Order: Orectolobiformes

 Family: Ginglymostomatidae

 Genus: Ginglymostoma

 Species: Cirratum